Reference Shelf

Definitions, Glossaries, Encyclopedias, Classics, ...

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Definitions, Glossaries, Encyclopedias, ...

Specific to AI

AI: how AAAI answers the question What is Artificial Intelligence?

books on a shelf

Artificial Intelligence. Article in Encyclopædia Britannica from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service.

Artificial Intelligence. Entry in The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001. Available from Bartleby.

Artificial Intelligence. Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence. 2nd ed. (1992); entry by Stuart C. Shapiro.

Artificial Intelligence Encyclopedia of Computer Science, Fourth Edition (2000); entry by Stuart C. Shapiro.

Artificial Intelligence. From

Artificial Intelligence. In The Van Nostrand Scientific Encyclopedia, 9th ed.'' (Wiley, New York, 2002); entry by David B. Leake.

Artificial Intelligence. Definition in the wordIQ Encyclopedia.

Artificial Intelligence Dictionary. Compiled by Bill Wilson at the University of New South Wales' School of Computer Science and Engineering, it is prefaced with the warning that this "is not a suitable way to begin to learn about AI." You'll also find links to his other online dictionaries: Machine Learning; NLP; and Prolog.

Encyclopedia of Computational Intelligence. From Scholarpedia, "the free peer reviewed encyclopedia written by scholars from all around the world."

Expert Systems Building Tools: Definitions. By H. Penny Nii.

Expert System Glossary. From

Glossary from the book, The Age of Intelligent Machines by Raymond Kurzweil. Available online from

Glossary of AI. From Stottler Henke Associates, Inc. This is where you'll find a definition of the AI Effect and much more.

Glossary of AI Terms. FAQ 1-13 in AI FAQs, maintained by Ric Crabbe and Amit Dubey. "This is the start of a simple glossary of short definitions for AI terminology. The purpose is not to present the gorey details, but give a general idea."

Glossary of Terms. Special Issue on Applications of Machine Learning and the Knowledge Discovery Process. Ron Kohavi and Foster Provost, eds. (1998). Machine Learning, 30: 271-274. "To help readers understand common terms in machine learning, statistics, and data mining, we provide a glossary of common terms."

Jargon Buster. From the BBC /Open University series: The Next Big Thing - Artificial Intelligence.

Knowledge Management Glossary. From R.G. Smith & Associates.

Machine Discovery Terminology. Compiled by Willi Kloesgen and Jan Zytkow. "Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD) uses concepts and techniques developed in many areas. Artificial intelligence subfields of machine discovery, machine learning, heuristic search, knowledge representation, and statistics are among the major contributors."

Machine Learning Dictionary. Compiled by Bill Wilson, Associate Professor in the Artificial Intelligence Group, School of Computer Science and Engineering, University of NSW. "You should use The Machine Learning Dictionary to clarify or revise concepts that you have already met. The Machine Learning Dictionary is not a suitable way to begin to learn about Machine Learning." FAQs. See the Frequently Asked Questions we've found online covering topics such as fuzzy logic, natural language, and speech.

Other Dictionaries & Glossaries Relevant to AI

Dictionary of Algorithms, Data Structures, and Problems. From Paul E. Black at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. "This is a dictionary of algorithms, algorithmic techniques, data structures, archetypical problems, and related definitions. Algorithms include common functions, such as Ackermann's function. Problems include traveling salesman and Byzantine generals. Some entries have links to implementations and more information."

Dictionary of the Philosophy of Mind. Maintained by the Philosophy of Mind Bookstore.

Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. From MIT Press. "MITECS classifies the cognitive and brain sciences into six domains: (1) computational intelligence (2) culture, cognition, and evolution (3) linguistics and language (4) neuroscience (5) philosophy, and (6) psychology. Each section contains an extended series of brief entries on the defining research topics of the domain."

Cognitive Science Dictionary. Maintained by Michael R. W. Dawson and David A. Medlar, University of Alberta.

Encyclopedia of Computational Neuroscience. From Scholarpedia, "the free peer reviewed encyclopedia written by scholars from all around the world."

Encyclopedia of Educational Technology San Diego State University; Bob Hoffman, General Editor. "The primary audiences for the EET are students and novice to intermediate practitioners in these fields, who need a brief overview as a starting point to further research on specific topics. Authors are graduate students, professors, and others who contribute voluntarily. Articles are short and use multimedia to enrich learning rather than merely decorate the pages."

FOLDOC: the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing. Maintained by Denis Howe. "13,000 entries and still growing," and very easy to use.

Geekipedia, The Wired World, from A to Z. From Wired.

Glossary. From CCRG, the Cognitive Computing Research Group at The University of Memphis.

Glossary. From the book, The Computational Beauty of Nature, by Gary William Flake. Available online from the MIT Press.

Glossary. From Generation5.

Glossary of Computer Oriented Abbreviations and Acronyms - BABEL. From Irving & Richard Kind.

Glossary of First-Order Logic. Maintained by Peter Suber, Philosophy Department, Earlham College. "This glossary is limited to basic set theory, basic recursive function theory, two branches of logic (truth-functional propositional logic and first-order predicate logic) and their metatheory." Also see Professor Suber's other resources such as:

Glossary of Linguistic Terms. Compiled by Dr. Peter Coxhead of The University of Birmingham School of Computer Science for his students.

Glossary of Terms. From PC AI.

Information Retrieval Glossary. From DataRecovery Labs.

Must-know terms for the 21st Century intellectual - Redux. George P. Dvorsky's Sentient Developments Blog (January 11, 2007).

Natural Language Processing Dictionary (NLP Dictionary). Compiled by Bill Wilson, Associate Professor in the Artificial Intelligence Group, School of Computer Science and Engineering, University of NSW. "You should use The NLP Dictionary to clarify or revise concepts that you have already met. The NLP Dictionary is not a suitable way to begin to learn about NLP."

Robot: a collection of definitions on our Robots page

Software History Dictionary Project at the Charles Babbage Institute.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Edited by Edward N. Zalta. Connectionism, Game Theory, Non-Monotonic Logic, Turning Machine, and much, much more.

Technology Dictionary Techopedia has one of the web's most comprehensive computer dictionaries. More than just a glossary, each term page goes into further detail with insights, real world examples and great related resources.

Webopedia, a free online dictionary for computer and Internet technology definitions from the network of Web sites.

"whatis?com is a knowledge exploration tool about information technology, especially about the Internet and computers. It contains over 2,000 individual encyclopedic definition/topics and a number of quick-reference pages. The topics contain about 12,000 hyperlinked cross-references between definition-topics and to other sites for further information."

The World Wide Web Acronym and Abbreviation Server. Maintained by Peter Flynn.

AI Encyclopedias & Handbooks -- only a few available online

Barr, Avron, Paul Cohen Edward A. Feigenbaum, (eds.) The Handbook of Artificial Intelligence (4 vols.). A four-volume collection of articles on all the major topics of AI at that time, with an extensive bibliography:

  • Vol. 1 (1981), Stanford, Calif.: HeurisTech Press ; Los Altos, Calif. : William Kaufmann
  • Vol. 2 (1982), Stanford, Calif.: HeurisTech Press ; Los Altos, Calif. : William Kaufmann
  • Vol. 3 (1982), Stanford, Calif.: HeurisTech Press ; Los Altos, Calif. : William Kaufmann and
  • Vol. 4 (1989), Reading, MA : Addison Wesley.

Bundy, Alan, editor. 1990. Catalog of Artificial Intelligence Tools. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Considine, Douglas M., editor and Glenn Considine, managing editor. 1994. Van Nostrand's Scientific Encyclopedia, Eighth Edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

  • available online: David B. Leake's article about AI for the upcoming Ninth Edition (2002)

Gabbay, D. M., C. J. Hogger, and J. A. Robinson, editors. 1993. Handbook of Logic in Artificial Intelligence and Logic Programming. 5 vols. Volume Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Hoffman, Bob, editor. Encyclopedia of Educational Technology

Ralston, A., E. D. Reilly and D. Hemmendinger, Eds. Encyclopedia of Computer Science, Fourth Edition, Grove's Dictionaries Inc., NY, 2000,

Shapiro, Stuart C., editor. 1992. Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence. 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Several hundred entries define and explain key terms in AI. Many entries are quite technical.

AI Dictionaries Offline

-- found in research libraries, not available online

Beardon, Colin. 1989. Artificial Intelligence Terminology; A Reference Guide. New York: Wiley & Sons.

Mercadel, Dennis. 1994. Dictionary of Artificial Intelligence. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Raynor, William, editor. 1998. The International Dictionary of Artificial Intelligence. Chicago/London: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers.

Rosenberg, Jerry M. 1986. Dictionary of Artificial Intelligence and Robotics. New York: Wiley & Sons.

Smith, Raoul N. 1989. The Facts on File Dictionary of Artificial Intelligence. New York: Facts on File.

Thro, Ellen 1991. The Artificial Intelligence Dictionary. San Marcos, CA: Microtrend Books.

Vollnhals, Otto. 1992. A Multilingual Dictionary of Artificial Intelligence. New York: Routledge.

Online Bibliographies, Digital Libraries and more

Proceedings and Collections contains several online sets of proceedings, bibliographies of individuals, and collections of citations to papers on specific topics.

Artificial Intelligence Sites on the Web from the Formal Methods Wiki. Includes links to AI-related Research Sites, Newsgroups, Organizations, Books. (Last update in 2009).

  • To find out more about open archives, and to access links to other projects, visit, "dedicated to opening access to the refereed research literature online through author/institution self-archiving ... part of the Open Citation Project, a DLI2 International Digital Libraries Project funded by the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) of the Higher Education Funding Councils, in collaboration with the National Science Foundation."

"The Computer Science Teaching Center (CSTC) is an internet-based repository of peer-reviewed teaching resources for computer science educators. The CSTC is designed to facilitate access to quality teaching materials developed worldwide. It is endorsed by the Association of Computing Machinery and funded by the National Science Foundation."

Computing Research Repository. "Through a partnership of ACM, the Los Alamos e-Print archive, and NCSTRL (Networked Computer Science Technical Reference Library), an online Computing Research Repository (CoRR) has been established. The CoRR is available to all members of the community at no charge." As for subject areas, "AI - Artificial Intelligence: Covers all areas of AI except Vision, Robotics, Machine Learning, and Computation and Language (Natural Language Processing), which have separate subject areas. In particular, includes Multiagent Systems, Expert Systems, Theorem Proving (although this may overlap with Logic in Computer Science), Knowledge Representation, Planning, and Uncertainty in AI. Roughly includes material in ACM Subject Classes I.2.0, I.2.1, I.2.3, I.2.4, I.2.8, and I.2.11."

Digital Bibliography & Library Project."The DBLP server provides bibliographic information on major computer science journals and proceedings. Initially the server was focused on DataBase systems and Logic Programming (DBLP), now it is gradually being expanded toward other fields of computer science. You may now read 'DBLP' as 'Digital Bibliography & Library Project'. The server indexes more than 200,000 articles and contains several thousand links to home pages of computer scientists (March 2001)."

Digital Library of India. This is where you'll find the Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI) from 1969 to the present.

" is a vast archive of published articles that you can search for free. Constantly updated, it contains articles dating back to 1998 from more than 300 magazines and journals."

"Google Scholar enables you to search specifically for scholarly literature, including peer-reviewed papers, theses, books, preprints, abstracts and technical reports from all broad areas of research."

Howstuffworks - Computer Library.

Internet Public Library. Over 20,000 books are available online without charge, as well as plenty of magazines, newspapers and much, much more.

MIT OpenCourseWare. "This initiative supports MIT's fundamental mission — to advance knowledge and education to best serve the nation and the world." Courses are offered in areas such as Brain and Cognitive Sciences and Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

NSDL, the National Science Digital Library: "The Nation's online library of resources for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education and research."

Neuroscience: It's All in Your Head. By Lisa A. Ennis. Library Journal (October 1, 2007). "The dynamic and rapidly expanding field of neuroscience traditionally has involved the study of the nervous system from a biological/medical standpoint. But in recent years the science has become multidisciplinary, attracting researchers from computer science, psychology, sociology, philosophy, and even the humanities. ... For public and college libraries, developing a well-rounded, balanced, and broadly accessible collection of books, periodicals, DVDs, and web sites on this highly technical and academic subject can be challenging. The following bibliography provides a general listing of recent titles, mostly nonmedical, that demonstrate neuroscience's breadth. ... "

The On-Line Books Page. "The On-Line Books Page is a directory of books that can be freely read right on the Internet. It includes: An index of thousands of on-line books on the Internet; Pointers to significant directories and archives of on-line texts; Special exhibits ...and more! The On-Line Books Page was founded in 1993 by John Mark Ockerbloom ... He remains the editor of the pages...." "PubMed Central (PMC) is the U.S. National Library of Medicine's free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature."

Robot Dreams - Build Your Own R2D2. By Dave Hook. Library Journal (November 1, 2002). "Collection Development: Building a robot involves knowledge of several fields such as electronics, motors, wiring, computers, programming, control systems, power systems, power transmission, mechanics, and fabricating. In creating a robotics collection, librarians need to consider their users' skill levels in these areas. Beginning enthusiasts may want to know where to start and how to go about building their first robot. The more experienced hobbyists will be more interested in where to find parts or code for programming their controller. ... Most of the titles listed here are for beginners and assume little previous knowledge, although there are also a few manuals for the more advanced hobbyist."

pie chart on computer screen

Classic Books in AI

AAAI is pleased to offer this permanent electronic archive of out-of-print Classic Books in AI.

Classic AI Papers

We are collecting Classic AI Papers that are available online. These include papers that originally shaped the vision of intelligent machines, seminal papers by the founders of the field, and more recent papers that have profoundly affected research directions.

Cogprints is "an Open-Access EPrint archive for self-archive papers." As of June, 2012, there were over 540 records in their Artificial Intelligence collection.

In addition, many authors maintain bibliographies with links to online papers.

AI Textbooks

AI Textbooks with Supplementary Online Material -- list with brief descriptions

Authors' Pages:

AI Journals & Magazines

ACM Crossroads, the Student Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery. Be sure to check out their back issues addressing topics such as Ethics and Computer Science, Cognitive Science, Artificial Life, Intelligent Agents, Robotics, and Artificial Intelligence.

Advances in Artificial Intelligence. Advances in Artificial Intelligence investigates the role of artificial intelligence in this rapidly progressing and challenging environment. It provides a rich, multidisciplinary platform for bringing together researchers and industry practitioners from a variety of areas to share results of current R&D and to discuss existing and emerging theoretical and applied problems in the rapidly evolving area of intelligent computing.

AI Expert Newsletter from Dr. Dobb's Journal.

AI Magazine cover

AI Magazine: "an official publication of the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence. ... Called the 'journal of record for the AI community,' AI Magazine helps AAAI members stay abreast of significant new research and literature across the entire field of artificial intelligence. This quarterly publication features timely, feature-length articles, consistently crafted to be clear enough to permit specialists to review work outside their particular area of expertise." Tables of contents for all issues are available online as are abstracts and full-text for selected issues.

. Maintained by Miquel Sànchez i Marrè, Associate Professor, Artificial Intelligence Section of the Software Department, Technical University of Catalonia (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya).

IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine "covers all areas of computational intelligence design and applications: applications oriented developments, successful industrial implementations, design tools, technology reviews, computational intelligence education, and applied research."

IEEE Intelligent Systems, a bimonthly publication of the IEEE Computer Society. Scope: "New and current applications of intelligent systems, including expert systems, robotics and embedded intelligence. Also available from IEEE Xplore

JAIR, Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, "JAIR articles are published for free distribution on the internet by the AI Access Foundation...."

Journal of Pattern Recognition Research. "The Journal of Pattern Recognition Research is a free to publish and free to access (open access) journal devoted to the field of pattern recognition and artificial intelligence. Authors submitting to the Journal are mainly from academia publishing primarily on applications of pattern recognition, machine learning, and artificial intelligence."

List of AI Resources: about AI from the Worcester CS Dept. Webliography Computer Science Department at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI).

PC AI Magazine, "Where Intelligent Technology Meets the Real World."

Technology Review: "Technology Review and are published by Technology Review Inc., an independent media company owned by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The oldest technology magazine in the world (est. 1899), Technology Review aims to promote the understanding of emerging technologies and to analyze their commercial, social, and political impacts." - from About Us.

What are the ratings of the various AI journals? and Associations and Journals. From AI FAQs, written by Ric Crabbe, Amit Dubey, and Mark Kantrowitz.

Online Sources of Overview Articles

PLOSONE online research articles in computer science.

Book Reviews

AI Magazine Book Reviews (1984 - present)

Also see: AI in the news


Additional Reference Materials

Classification Schemes

The ACM Computing Classification System (1998 Version; valid in 2005). Copyright 2005, by the Association for Computing Machinery, Inc.

Scientific DataLink’s Artificial Intelligence Classification Scheme. By David L. Waltz. AI Magazine 6(1): Spring 1985, 58-63. "The major decision I had to make was whether to use the existing ACM index scheme and add to it, or start with a fresh sheet of paper and devise my own. I decided to stick with ACM's top two levels, only adding, not modifying, major headings."

AI Videos

AAAI Video Archive logo

AAAI Video Archive: "The AAAI Video Archive site is a master catalog of videos about AI stored digitally on other sites, or physically in institutional archives. For each video, the virtual archive includes a brief description of the contents and personae of the video, one or more representative, short clips for classroom or individual use, and the location of the archival copy (e.g., at a university library). The Video Archive is part of AAAI's ongoing effort to communicate the science of AI to interested people around the world."

Internet Archive: "a 501(c)(3) non-profit that was founded to build an Internet library, with the purpose of offering permanent access for researchers, historians, and scholars to historical collections that exist in digital format.

  • Computers and Technology: "Featuring two television programs popular in the 1980's and 1990's: Computer Chronicles and Net Café, this library showcases videos about computing and technology. Collection topics include BBS, the Open Source movement, and Internet governance. Many of these movies are available for free download."

AI Quotations

Our collection of AI related quotations. [Please keep in mind that we're always open to suggestions for new material!]

An Arc Through AI Space. Compiled by Jocelyn Paine.AI Expert Newsletter from Dr. Dobb's Journal (September 2005). "I came across a few of the quotes below while looking up references for another article. It's an article that hasn't yet worked out, but I thought it would be fun to use them to trace a path through the past - and perhaps future - development of AI.Artificial Intelligence."

Artificial Intelligence Quotations from Stottler Henke Associates, Inc.

Photographs of People

Some photos of AI scientists from various conferences and historical web sites. PLEASE SEND US MORE PHOTOS FOR THIS COLLECTION.

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Page last modified on June 20, 2012, at 03:32 PM