Applications / Expert Systems

Uses of AI in Specific Areas and the Technology of Expert Systems

AITopics > Applications / Expert Systems


To be useful, a system has to be able to do more than just correctly perform some task.
- John McDermott

Although engineers in artificial intelligence often are inspired by thinking about what robots will do on Mars in 50 years, [Milind] Tambe said, "This is not planet Mars. This is planet Earth, and we are being useful right here and right now."
- USC student's computer program enlisted in security efforts at LAX

Artificial intelligence is already very much a part of everyday life in industrialized nations. AI is helping people in every field make better use of information to work smarter, not harder.

People of the future may look back on our society and marvel at our way of life: doctors relying mainly on their memory for all the salient facts to a case, cars that can't parallel-park themselves, factories requiring human assembly-line drudgery, library books unable to recommend other relevant information sources.

Some of the exciting applications already in use can be found in our collection of Applications Areas.

Good Starting Places

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Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence Conference page with links to past, present & future conferences: ANNUAL COLLECTIONS OF INTERESTING APPLICATIONS "Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence Conferences (IAAI) traditionally consist of of case studies of deployed applications with measurable benefits whose value depends on the use of AI technology. In addition, many IAAI conferences augment these case studies with papers and invited talks that address emerging areas of AI technology or applications."

Table of contents and abstracts for the conference proceedings can be viewed online. This is where you'll find snapshots of exciting DEPLOYED and EMERGING APPLICATIONS.

Backgrounders providing brief descriptions of the winning innovative applications are available for some of the recent conferences.

AI Magazine Cover
  • The Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence Conference. By Bruce Buchanan and Sam Uthurusamy. AI Magazine 20(1): Spring 1999, 11-12. "What have you done for us lately? The question comes from an old joke about a Boston politician talking to voters in his district. 'Will you vote for me? I gave your father a job at city hall, I found jobs for your wife, your sons, and your daughter. Last year I directed a million dollars worth of business to your company. And I got the city to repair your street.' To which the voter replied, 'I know all that, but what have you done for us lately?' We in AI get the same kind of question. The Annual Conferences on the Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence (IAAI) were initiated 10 years ago to provide yearly updates to our answers.&quot*For example, here's an excerpt from the 2005 briefing: "The following 7 applications will receive the prestigious AAAI Award for Innovative Applications of AI at the conference. These applications illustrate the continued strategic role AI is playing in new computer systems across a broad range of applications and industries; and delivering tremendous returns on investment. This year’s award winners show that recently-deployed, cutting edge AI applications can be found around the world in industries as disparate as finance, transportation and aerospace; they can be found running operations under the ground, on the ground, in the ocean, in the air, and into space; and they can be found assisting engineers, insurance underwriters, F-18 pilots and genomic research scientists."
  • Innovative AI Applications: Introduction to This Special Issue. By Neil Jacobstein and Bruce Porter. AI Magazine 27(3): Fall 2006, 13-14. "This editorial introduces the articles published in the AI Magazine special issue on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence (IAAI), based on a selection of papers that appeared in the IAAI-05 conference, which occurred July 9–13 2005 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania."

Grandmasters and Global Growth by Kenneth Rogoff. Project Syndicate, Jan. 5, 2010. "As the global economy limps out of the last decade and enters a new one in 2010, what will be the next big driver of global growth? Here’s betting that the “teens” is a decade in which artificial intelligence hits escape velocity, and starts to have an economic impact on par with the emergence of India and China. " Kenneth Rogoff is Professor of Economics and Public Policy at Harvard University, and was formerly chief economist at the IMF.

Artificial Intelligence: Realizing the Ultimate Promises of Computing by David Waltz. "Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the key technology in many of today's novel applications, ranging from banking systems that detect attempted credit card fraud, to telephone systems that understand speech, to software systems that notice when you're having problems and offer appropriate advice. These technologies would not exist today without the sustained federal support of fundamental AI research over the past three decades. Although there are some fairly pure applications of AI ... for the most part, AI does not produce stand-alone systems, but instead adds knowledge and reasoning to existing applications, databases, and environments, to make them friendlier, smarter, and more sensitive to user behavior and changes in their environments. " This essay is part of this Computing Research Association's (CRA) Web document "Computing Research: Driving Information Technology and the Information Industry Forward."

Smart Tools - Companies in health care, finance, and retailing are using artificial-intelligence systems to filter huge amounts of data and identify suspicious transactions. By Otis Port, with Michael Arndt and John Carey. Business Week's 2003 edition of The BusinessWeek50. "Some managers still think that artificial intelligence--the decades-long effort to create computer systems with human-like smarts--has been a big flop. But executives at most companies on the BW50 list know better. Artificial intelligence (AI) is often a crucial ingredient in their stellar performance. In fact, AI is now a part of a swath of industries as broad as the BW50 itself. AI software helps engineers create better jet engines. In factories, it boosts productivity by monitoring equipment and signaling when preventive maintenance is needed. The Pentagon uses AI to coordinate its immense logistics operations. And in the pharmaceutical sector, it is used to gain new insights into the tremendous amount of data on the human genome."

General Readings

USC student's computer program enlisted in security efforts at LAX - Program developed by a USC student is intended to thwart terrorists by making the frequency of searches unpredictable. By Larry Gordon. Los Angeles Times (October 1, 2007). "The doctoral dissertation of a 26-year-old USC computer science student is having an unusual effect on security and transportation at Los Angeles International Airport. That's because the LAX police are giving a trial run to a new computer program that, they say, seeks to keep potential terrorists and criminals constantly uncertain about where, when and how often vehicles will be searched at airport entrances. The software is based on the thesis of Praveen Paruchuri, who earned his doctorate in May. ... Citing security concerns, Butts declined to discuss specifics of the program and its complicated algorithms other than to say it affects police deployment and the frequency of car searches in a way that 'makes it virtually impossible to predict where resources might be deployed.' It not only takes away the routine behavior that terrorists might study and take advantage of, it also designs schedules more likely to catch criminal behavior, [James] Butts said. ... LAX's adoption of Paruchuri's work is 'something that we, as researchers, dream of: creating research that is not only academically wonderful but something that is also very useful,' [Milind] Tambe said. Although engineers in artificial intelligence often are inspired by thinking about what robots will do on Mars in 50 years, Tambe said, 'This is not planet Mars. This is planet Earth, and we are being useful right here and right now.'"

Take a moment and a raise a glass to the wonderful, underappreciated AI. Andrew Kantor's CyberSpeak column. (June 1, 2006). "AI does more than make better games ... What Far Cry illustrates is how far artificial intelligence has come. It's so sophisticated that we almost dismiss it. In a way, that's a sign of their quality. Invisible tech is often the best tech. ... Because Google doesn't talk like HAL 9000, we don't think of it as AI. Working with its own algorithm and the data input by millions of users every time they search, Google is able to help you find information on the billions of pages of the Web in a matter of seconds. Or less. ... Another example: When I check my e-mail, Thunderbird deletes almost all of the incoming spam. It does this not by looking for obvious spam words, but by using artificial intelligence - in this case Bayesian filtering to create a detailed profile of each message. Based on what it's learned - yes, learned - about the mail I receive, it can tell it how likely any given message is legit. If you drive a modern car, your vehicle's artificial intelligence is doing a lot for you - quietly and behind the scenes, of course. ... So while we're waiting for our computers to have meaningful conversations with us, take a moment to appreciate the underappreciated AI - and be glad its not trying to kill us - much."

AI Reaches the Golden Years. By David Cohn. Wired News (July 17, 2006). "Artificial intelligence is 50 years old this summer, and while computers can beat the world's best chess players, we still can't get them to think like a 4-year-old. This week in Boston, some of the field's leading practitioners are gathering to examine this most ambitious of computer research fields, which at once has managed to exceed, and fall short of, our grandest expectations. 'Artificial intelligence has accomplished more than people realize,' said futurist Ray Kurzweil. 'It permeates our economic infrastructure. Every time you place a cell phone call, send an e-mail, AI programs are directing information.' ... AI technology is used by banks to police transactions for fraud, by cell phone companies for voice recognition, and by search engines to scour the web and organize data. Beyond business, programs like Artificial Intelligence in Medicine help doctors diagnose and treat patients, while vision-recognition programs scan beaches and pools and alert lifeguards to signs of drowning. ... Today, AI is still in its infancy, making it difficult to tell just what to expect in the future. 'It took more than 100 years between Mendel and deciphering the genetic code, and even that wasn't the end of genetics,' said Stanford's [John] McCarthy. Keeping things in perspective, the conference this week isn't aimed at figuring out how to reach singularity but will present research papers from leaders in the field of AI on practical applications and breakthroughs." [Also see these related articles.]

Artificial intelligence and machine learning; Now and the future (podcast). Vanderbilt News Service (March 24, 2006). "Doug Fisher, associate professor of computer science and computer engineering at Vanderbilt University, talks about the state of the art in artificial intelligence and robotics in this [March 19th] interview by Adelyn Jones of WRLT FM radio in Nashville." Also available from the Internet Archive

Robots shift car tech into high gear. By Stefanie Olsen. CNET (October 18, 2005). "A well-publicized race in the desert earlier this month proved that artificially intelligent robots can drive autonomously over rugged terrain and long distances. But will the technology be relevant to average Americans? If you ask the masterminds behind the robots, the answer is 'yes, it's just a matter of time.' Vehicles powered with artificial-intelligence software and sporting the ability to 'see' the road with external sensors will be a staple in the U.S. military within 10 years, under a mandate from Congress that spurred the desert robot rally. The underlying technology also will find its way into popular cars with features like collision and lane-departure warnings and adaptive cruise controls. The technology is also relevant, experts say, for the disabled and for automating machines. ... 'We've been working on the war on cancer, but with this technology we're a lot closer to saving more lives--young lives--through accidents, by giving attentional aids,' said Gary Bradski, a machine-learning expert at Intel who worked on Stanley."

The Prospects for AI. Listen to this panel discussion with Neil Jacobstein, Patrick Lincoln, Peter Norvig and Bruno Olshausen recorded on September 17, 2005 at the Accelerating Change 2005 conference and made available by IT Conversations.

Robotics and Intelligent Systems in Support of Society. By Raj Reddy. IEEE Intelligent Systems (May/June 2006) 21(3): 24-31. Abstract: "Over the past 50 years, there has been extensive research into robotics and intelligent systems. While much of the research has targeted specific technical problems, advances in these areas have led to systems and solutions that will have a profound impact on society. This article provides several examples of the use of such ecotechnologies in the service of humanity, in the areas of robotics, speech, vision, human computer interaction, natural language processing, and artificial intelligence." [The full-text of this article is available to non-subscribers for a limited period.]

21st-Century AI - Proud, Not Smug. By Tim Menzies. IEEE Intelligent Systems (May/June 2003). "AI is no longer a bleeding-edge technology -- hyped by its proponents and mistrusted by the mainstream. In the 21st century, AI is not necessarily amazing. Rather, it's often routine. Evidence for AI technology's routine and dependable nature abounds...."

AI Revisited - Pieces of the AI Puzzle are Already Deployed, but Much Remains to be Done. Bart Eisenberg's Pacific Connection series in Software Design Magazine (December 2004). "'There's a joke in the AI community that as soon as AI works, it is no longer called AI,' says Sara Hedberg, a spokeswoman for the American Association for Artificial Intelligence. Hedberg, who has written about AI for the past 20 years or so, has done her share of trying to enlighten reporters who are ready to declare AI dead. 'Once a technology leaves the research labs and gets proven, it becomes ubiquitous to the point where it is almost invisible,' she says. ... The American Association for Artificial Intelligence serves as a kind of crossroads for AI researchers. Ahead of its 2004 conference, the organization identified a slew of emerging fields where AI research is going strong, starting with counter-terrorism, crisis management and defense. One big project funder is DARPA, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the same U.S. government agency that first funded the Internet. Other research areas include space exploration, robotics, Web search engines and agents, healthcare, and manufacturing. And what do all of these areas have in common? AI applications have grown so diverse that the shared term 'artificial intelligence' may be the only thing these applications share. If you declare that your research is AI-related-then, ipso facto, it is. ... To get a sense of what AI looks like in the year 2004, I spoke with researchers in a variety of fields. ..."


Invasion of the Robots - From medicine to military, machines finally arrive. By Michael Kanellos. CNET (March 10, 2004). "The robots are coming. And when they get here, they will take out the trash. Mobile, intelligent robots that can perform tasks usually reserved for humans are starting to creep into mainstream society and could become a multibillion-dollar market in a few years."

The Futurist - The Intelligent Internet. The Promise of Smart Computers and E-Commerce. By William E. Halal. Government Computer News Daily News (June 23, 2004). "Information and communication technologies are rapidly converging to create machines that understand us, do what we tell them to, and even anticipate our needs. We tend to think of intelligent systems as a distant possibility, but two relentless supertrends are moving this scenario toward near-term reality. Scientific advances are making it possible for people to talk to smart computers, while more enterprises are exploiting the commercial potential of the Internet. ... [F]orecasts conducted under the TechCast Project at George Washington University [] indicate that 20 commercial aspects of Internet use should reach 30% 'take-off' adoption levels during the second half of this decade to rejuvenate the economy. Meanwhile, the project's technology scanning finds that advances in speech recognition, artificial intelligence, powerful computers, virtual environments, and flat wall monitors are producing a 'conversational' human-machine interface. These powerful trends will drive the next generation of information technology into the mainstream by about 2010. ... The following are a few of the advances in speech recognition, artificial intelligence, powerful chips, virtual environments, and flat-screen wall monitors that are likely to produce this intelligent interface. ... IBM has a Super Human Speech Recognition Program to greatly improve accuracy, and in the next decade Microsoft's program is expected to reduce the error rate of speech recognition, matching human capabilities. ... MIT is planning to demonstrate their Project Oxygen, which features a voice-machine interface. ... Amtrak, Wells Fargo, Land's End, and many other organizations are replacing keypad-menu call centers with speech-recognition systems because they improve customer service and recover investment in a year or two. ... General Motors OnStar driver assistance system relies primarily on voice commands, with live staff for backup; the number of subscribers has grown from 200,000 to 2 million and is expected to increase by 1 million per year. The Lexus DVD Navigation System responds to over 100 commands and guides the driver with voice and visual directions. ... BCC Corporation estimates total AI sales to grow from $12 billion in 2002 to $21 billion in 2007."

Stuart Russell on the Future of Artificial Intelligence. Ubiquity (Volume 4, Issue 43; December 24 - January 6, 2004). "UBIQUITY: It's not easy for laypeople to know what is AI and what's not AI. Is that a good sign or a bad sign? For example, is TiVo considered AI? TiVo, of course, is a system that allows recording of TV programs, searches for shows it predicts the viewer will like, edits out commercials, and does various other tricks. RUSSELL: Most people would call the predictive part AI, and it's partially a sociological accident of who developed those ideas and what field they identified with. There can't be a hard-and-fast line because every AI system is based on a computer program, but in practice AI tends not to be simple algorithms that are straightforward preprogrammed sequences of commands. ... There are other gray areas too. Some people would say that Google is AI. Some people would say its databases. Some people would say its algorithm or theoretical computer science. UBIQUITY: And YOU say? RUSSELL: I'd say it contains some elements of all of the above. It's like asking, where is the dividing line between trees and bushes or bushes and shrubs? It's not clear that there has to be a dividing line."   [Also see our But is it AI? collection.]

Artificial Intelligence Applications Institute. Edinburgh, Scotland. Links to an exciting array of projects and applications which includes summaries of actual client case histories.

AI by another name. The Economist (March 14, 2002). "Ironically, in some ways, AI was a victim of its own success. Whenever an apparently mundane problem was solved, such as building a system that could land an aircraft unattended, or read handwritten postcodes to speed mail sorting, the problem was deemed not to have been AI in the first place. 'If it works, it can't be AI,' as Dr Leake characterises it. The effect of repeatedly moving the goal-posts in this way was that AI came to refer to blue-sky research that was still years away from commercialisation. Researchers joked that AI stood for 'almost implemented'. Meanwhile, the technologies that worked well enough to make it on to the market, such as speech recognition, language translation and decision-support software, were no longer regarded as AI. Yet all three once fell well within the umbrella of AI research."

Ernestine, Meet Julie - Natural language speech recognition is markedly improving voice-activated self-service. By Karen Bannan. CFO Magazine (January 1, 2005). "A new technology, called natural language speech recognition, is markedly improving voice-activated self-service. Powered by artificial intelligence, these speech-recognition systems are altering consumer perceptions about phone self-service, as calls for help no longer elicit calls for help. That, in turn, is spurring renewed corporate interest in the concept of phone self-service. In 2004, sales of voice self-service systems topped $1.2 billion. 'We've seen voice systems move from emerging technology to applied technology over the last few years,' says Steve Cramoysan, principal analyst at Stamford, Connecticut-based research firm Gartner. 'It's still fairly immature. But it's proven and moving toward the mainstream.'"

Innovators / Artificial Intelligence: Forging the Future - Rise of the Machines - These visionaries are making robots that can perform music, rescue disaster victims and even explore other planets on their own. By Dan Cray, Carolina A. Miranda, Wilson Rothman, Toko Sekiguchi. Time Magazine (June 14, 2004).

The gentle rise of the machines. Robotics - The science-fiction dream that robots would one day become a part of everyday life was absurd. Or was it? The Economist Technology Quarterly (March 11, 2004). "So far, however, such robots have proliferated in science fiction, but have proved rather more elusive in the real world. But optimists are now arguing that the success of the Roomba and of toys such as Aibo, Sony's robot dog, combined with the plunging cost of computer power, could mean that the long-awaited mass market for robots is finally within reach."

Editorial Introduction to this Special Issue of AI Magazine: The Twelfth Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence Conference (IAAI-2000). By Robert Engelmore and Haym Hirsh. AI Magazine 22(2): Summer 2001, 13-14. "In this special issue, we selected six of the papers, including one of the invited talks, and asked the authors to expand their conference presentations to provide more explanatory material. We believe these articles are representative of the current state of the art in innovative applications of AI. The six papers are: Human-Level AI's Killer Application: Interactive Computer Games; SciFinance: A Program Synthesis Tool for Financial Modeling; An Innovative Application from the DARPA Knowledge Bases Programs: Rapid Development of a Course-of-Action Critiquer; Knowledge Portals: Ontologies at Work; LifeCode: A Deployed Application for Automated Medical Coding; and Personalized Electronic Program Guides for Digital TV.

Artificial Intelligence heads for the mainstream - AI vendors boost commercial uses of enabling technology. By Robert Jaques. (September 20, 2004) "Artificial intelligence (AI) is making its way out of the lab and into the mainstream market, industry experts have reported. According to analyst group Frost & Sullivan some technologies, such as case-based reasoning applications, have already created a buzz in fields including drug discovery, medical diagnosis, fraud detection, data mining and knowledge discovery."

Pushing The Limits. By Carol Levin. PC Magazine (July 13, 2004; Volume 23, Number 12). "As PC Magazine editors and analysts, we spend our days staying ahead of the curve so our readers can be the first to learn about the latest technology products for their homes and offices. But once a year, we turn our attention not to products you can buy today but to those technologies that are gathering momentum, poised to make an impact on the future. The past twelve months have delivered an ample assortment of candidates."

Rethinking AI. MIT AI Lab. Key points from presentations made by many speakers at a 1997 program, including an overview by Patrick Winston.

Bill Gates to Keynote International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence - Gates to Detail Microsoft's Commitment to Extending Human Capabilities Through Smarter Software. Microsoft press release (August 6, 2003). "'AI is more than a movie,' Gates said. 'It's the next frontier in computing and usability. Microsoft is focusing more on research in this field than ever before. We're building technologies that will enable computers to see, listen, speak and learn, so people can interact with them as naturally as they interact with their friends.' Microsoft's research division, Microsoft Research, is committed to addressing both principles and applications of AI, and includes research teams dedicated to automated decision-making, knowledge representation, information retrieval and search, machine learning and data mining, natural language, speech and handwriting recognition, and vision. Gates will highlight the role of AI in current Microsoft® products and demonstrate prototypes that rely on advances in artificial intelligence developed at Microsoft Research."

Developments in Artificial Intelligence, Chapter 9 of Funding a Revolution: Government Support for Computing Research. Committee on Innovations in Computing and Communications: Lessons from History, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1999.

"Patent trends suggest that AI technology is being incorporated into growing numbers of commercial products. The number of patents in AI, expert systems, and neural networks jumped from fewer than 20 in 1988 to more than 120 in 1996, and the number of patents citing patents in these areas grew from about 140 to almost 800 [fn]. The number of AI-related patents (including patents in AI, expert systems, neural networks, intelligent systems, adaptive agents, and adaptive systems) issued annually in the United States increased exponentially from approximately 100 in 1985 to more than 900 in 1996 (see Figure 9.1). Changes in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office's rules on the patentability of algorithms have no doubt contributed to this growth, as has the increased commercial value of AI technology. The vast majority of these patents are held by private firms, including large manufacturers of electronics and computers, as well as major users of information technology (see Table 9.4). These data indicate that AI technology is likely to be embedded in larger systems, from computers to cars to manufacturing lines, rather than used as stand-alone products."

AI's Next Brain Wave. New research in artificial intelligence could lay the groundwork for computer systems that learn from their users and the world around them. Part four in The Future Of Software series. By Aaron Ricadela. InformationWeek (April 25, 2005). "InformationWeek took a look at four research labs working in artificial intelligence, at IBM, Intel, Microsoft, and Xerox subsidiary Palo Alto Research Center. Instead of leading to another round of outsize expectations, this generation of research likely could lay the groundwork for a new breed of computer systems that learn from their users and the world around them."

Best-kept secret agent revealed - No longer just the province of specialist sectors, agent-based computing is changing the way systems interact and how they are managed. By Boris Sedacca. (October 12, 2006). "Agent-based computing has already transformed processes such as automated financial markets trading, logistics, and industrial robotics. Now it is moving into the mainstream commercial sector as more complex systems with many different components are used by a wider range of businesses. Organisations that have successfully implemented agent technologies include DaimlerChrysler, IBM and the Ministry of Defence ."

The Role of Intelligent Systems in the National Information Infrastructure, an AAAI Policy Report. "The field of artificial intelligence (AI) can play a pivotal role in meeting major challenges of the NII. AI uses the theoretical and experimental tools of computer science to study the phenomena of intelligent behavior. The field not only addresses a profound scientific problem, but also develops practical technology for constructing intelligent systems. AI research has produced an extensive body of principles, representations, and algorithms. Successful AI applications range from custom-built expert systems to mass-produced software and consumer electronics. AI techniques can play a central role in the development of a useful and usable National Information Infrastructure (NII) because they offer the best alternative for addressing three key challenges."

Applications of AI and Expert Systems Applications Areas

Expert Systems Technology

The AI Effect

Related Resources

AI Applications in the News. Browse through our extensive collection of exciting (and very current) news articles about AI applications.

AI Companies. From the Open Directory Project.

AI Laboratories. From AI International. "This page lists major independent commercial and nonprofit AI laboratories. For labs that are a part of a university, see the Universities page."

AI Software Systems: "This section will show how AI has been incorporated into everyday use in Business and Industry." Part of the "Real World" Systems collection from AKRI (Applied Knowledge Research Institute).

AI on the Web, a resource companion to Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig's "Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach," provides links to companies involved in various aspects of AI.

AIA Conference - Artificial Intelligence and Applications~AIA 2007~as part of the 25th IASTED International Multi-Conference on Applied Informatics,February 12 – 14, 2007, Innsbruck, Austria. Past AIA conferences can be accessed via links in the left sidebar.

Achievements, innovative applications, and projects from AIAI, the Artificial Intelligence Applications Institute at the University of Edinburgh's School of Informatics. "AIAI is a technology transfer organisation that promotes the application of Artificial Intelligence research for the benefit of commercial, industrial, and government clients." After exploring this collection you'll know why they say: "Four decades of world-leading research and teaching in AI at Edinburgh - Two decades of innovative applications of AI at AIAI."

Applications Areas - the AITopics collection covers applications from Agriculture to Video Games!

Applied Artificial Intelligence, a journal from Taylor & Francis, "addresses concerns in applied research and applications of artificial intelligence (AI). The journal also acts as a medium for exchanging ideas and thoughts about impacts of AI research. Articles highlight advances in uses of AI systems for solving tasks in management, industry, engineering, administration, and education; evaluations of existing AI systems and tools, emphasizing comparative studies and user experiences; and the economic, social, and cultural impacts of AI."

Artificial Intelligence Success Stories. From Franz Inc., "vendor of dynamic object-oriented development tools featuring Common Lisp and CLOS (the Common Lisp Object System)."

Buchanan, Bruce G., and Edward H. Shortliffe, editors. 1984. Rule-Based Expert Systems --The MYCIN Experiments of the Stanford Heuristic Programming Project. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. This book is now available online from AAAI's Classic Books in AI collection.

CSAIL (MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory)

CSIRO ICT Centre's Autonomous Systems Laboratory: "These systems comprise sensors intelligently linked to control and actuation, and may communicate and co-operate to achieve complex tasks. They are designed to perform tasks that people cannot do well or safely, or the mundane jobs they do not wish to do."

DARPA: "The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is the central research and development organization for the Department of Defense (DoD). Here is one of their many exciting programs:

  • "The Urban Challenge. Teams will compete to build an autonomous vehicle able to complete a 60-mile urban course safely in less than 6 hours."

Information and Intelligent Systems (IIS) is a division of Computer and Information Science and Engineering (CISE) at the National Science Foundation (NSF). "[It] supports science and engineering research and education projects that 1) develop new knowledge about the integration and co-evolution of social and technical systems, especially those that have the potential to transform learning and discovery and enhance quality of life and economic prosperity for all people; 2) increase the capabilities of human beings and machines to create, discover and reason with knowledge by advancing the ability to represent, collect, store, organize, visualize and communicate about data and information; 3) advance the state-of-the-art in the application of Information Technology (IT) to science and engineering problems; and 4) advance knowledge about how computational systems can perform tasks autonomously, robustly, and flexibly. The IIS Division is organized into three clusters, Human-Centered Computing (HCC), Information Integration and Informatics (III), and Robust Intelligence (RI)."

European robots: getting smarter, safer, and more sensitive - Downloadable Report in pdf format from the EU Information Society Technologies programme: "In this report produced for the publication series ICT Research: The Policy Perspective, we examine how the application of robotics and cognition research is creating a new generation of smart machines. Tomorrow’s robots will not be confined to industry, but work in the ‘real world’, providing solutions for many societal issues.." (No date).

The Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence Conference (IAAI). "Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence Conferences (IAAI) traditionally consist of of case studies of deployed applications with measurable benefits whose value depends on the use of AI technology. In addition, many IAAI conferences augment these case studies with papers and invited talks that address emerging areas of AI technology or applications. IAAI is organized as an independent program within the AAAI National Conference."

"IEEE Intelligent Systems, a bimonthly publication of the IEEE [Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers] Computer Society, covers new tools, techniques, concepts, and current research and development activities in intelligent systems."

National Science Foundation (NSF) "Exhibition of U.S. Automatons from the Leading Edge of Research Highlighting the WTEC [World Technology Evaluation Center] International Study of Robotics."

PC AI magazine: "Where Intelligent Technology Meets the Real World."

SRI International's Artificial Intelligence Center (AIC): "one of the world's major centers of research in artificial intelligence. Founded in 1966, the AIC has been a pioneer and a major contributor to the development of computer capabilities for intelligent behavior in complex situations. Its objectives are to understand the computational principles underlying intelligence in man and machines and to develop methods for building computer-based systems to solve problems, to communicate with people, and to perceive and interact with the physical world."

  • AIC Timeline: "The Artificial Intelligence Center at SRI International has been a center of excellence and innovation for over thirty-five years. The Center has made many important contributions to the AI field over the years, and new advances continue to be made. This timeline shows just a few of the AI Center's major achievements and milestones."

Stottler Henke Associates, Inc. is just one of the many companies putting AI to work:

  • Artificial Intelligence: " ... AI has been around for about 50 years and while early optimism about matching human reasoning capabilities quickly has not been realized yet, there is a significant and growing set of valuable applications. AI hasn't yet mimicked much of the common-sense reasoning of a five-year old child. Nevertheless, it can successfully mimic many expert tasks performed by trained adults, and there is probably more artificial intelligence being used in practice in one form or another than most people realize. Really intelligent applications will only be achievable with artificial intelligence and it is the mark of a successful AI software designer to deliver functionality that can't be delivered without using AI."
  • Using Artificial Intelligence: "Identifying possible artificial intelligence (AI) applications in your workplace does not require that you know anything about AI. ..."
  • Products & Solutions

Other References Offline

Allen, Bradley P. 1994. Case-Based Reasoning: Business Applications. Communications of the ACM 37 (3): 40-42.

Andriole, Stephen J., and Gerald W. Hopple, editors. 1992. Applied Artificial Intelligence : A Sourcebook. New York: Tab Books/McGraw Hill. Chapters are provided by industry experts to explain what AI can (and can't) do.

If every tool, when ordered, or even of its own accord, could do the work that befits it, just as the creations of Daedalus moved of themselves . . . If the weavers' shuttles were to weave of themselves, then there would be no need either of apprentices for the master workers or of slaves for the lords.
- Aristotle, from Atheniensium Republica

Dean, Thomas, James Allen, and Yiannis Aloimonos. 1995. Artificial Intelligence: Theory and Practice. Redwood City, CA: The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Co., Inc. Part of the first chapter (pp. 1-7) gives examples of AI in everyday use. The subject-oriented chapters begin with examples of current applications developed from special fields in AI.

Durkin, John. 1993. Expert Systems : Catalog of Applications. Akron, OH: Intelligent Computer Systems Inc. Durkin, John. 1994. Expert Systems : Design and Development. New York: Maxwell Macmillan International.

Feigenbaum, Edward A., Pamela McCorduck, and H. P. Nii. 1988. The Rise of the Expert Company: How Visionary Companies are Using Artificial Intelligence to Achieve Higher Productivity and Profits. New York: Times Books.

Goldberg, David E. 1994. Genetic and Evolutionary Algorithms Come of Age. Communications of the ACM 37 (3): 113-119. Describes applications to police work, engine design, computer software technology, and more.

Grepo, Stephanie V. 1996. Robot Ant-ics. Technology Review 99: 13-14. Grimson, W. E. L., and J. L. Mundy. 1994. Computer Vision Applications. Communications of the ACM 37 (3): 45-51.

Hayes-Roth, Frederick, and Neil Jacobstein. 1994. The State of Knowledge-Based Systems. Communications of the ACM 37 (3): 27-39.

Kanade, Takeo, Michael L. Reed, and Lee E. Weiss. 1994. New Technologies and Applications in Robotics. Communications of the ACM 37 (3): 58-76.

Mann, Charles K., and Stephen R. Ruth, editors. 1992. Expert Systems in Developing Countries : Practice and Promise. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

McLaughlin, Laurianne. 1996. How to Cut Down on Tech Calls. PC World 14 (August 1996): 49. Using artificial intelligence to troubleshoot hardware and software PC problems.

Munakata, Toshinori, and Yashvant Jani. 1994. Fuzzy Systems: An Overview. Communications of the ACM 37 (3): 69-76.

Pentland, Alex P. 1998. Wearable Intelligence. Scientific American Presents 9 (4): 90-95. Just as the pocket caluculator became more convenient and useful than the desktop adding machine, so will "wearable" intelligent devices embedded in eyeglasses, clothing and shoes become useful for storing information such as phone numbers, addresses, and so on. Pentland is the academic head of the MIT Media Laboratory, and you can find more information on wearable devices at

Roberts, Bill. 1996. Make the Right Decision. Home Office Computing 14 (July 1996): 36+. Artificial intelligence software packages are available to help with decision-making.

Rudnicky, Alexander I., Alexander G. Hauptman, and Kai-Fu Lee. 1994. Survey of Current Speech Technology. Communications of the ACM 37 (3): 52-57.

Rychtyckyj, Nestor. 2007. Intelligent Systems for Manufacturing at Ford Motor Company. IEEE Intelligent Systems 22(1): 16-19. Abstract: "It's a common misconception that the automobile industry is slow to adapt new technologies, such as AI, into the manufacturing sector. In reality, many early adaptations of AI were in the automotive sector, where such diverse technologies as expert systems, neural networks, genetic algorithms, and fuzzy logic were among the first to be used. Ford Motor Company is applying AI and knowledge-based technologies within its manufacturing arena, including an AI-based approach for vehicle assembly process planning, an application of AI for ergonomics analysis, and a system that uses machine translation to translate assembly-build instructions for assembly plants that don't use English as their primary language. Furthermore, specific technologies such as natural language processing, controlled languages, and ontologies can effectively deal with different types of knowledge, both structured and unstructured, prevalent in the manufacturing environment."

Shortliffe, E. H. 1976. Computer-Based Medical Consultations: MYCIN. New York: Elsevier. Full text of 1984 Mycin book.

Turban, Efraim, and Louis E. Frenzel, Jr. 1992. Expert Systems and Applied Artificial Intelligence. New York: Maxwell Macmillan International.

Walker, Terri C., and Richard K. Miller. 1990. Expert Systems Handbook : An Assessment of Technology and Applications. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Watson, Andrew. 1997. Why Can't A Computer Be More Like a Brain? Science 277 (September 26, 1997): 1934-6.

Widrow, Bernard, David E. Rumelhart, and Michael Lehr. 1994. Neural Networks: Applications in Industry, Business and Science. Communications of the ACM 37 (3): 93-105.

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